Retinyl palmitate, or vitamin A palmitate, is the ester of retinol and palmitic acid, with formula C₃₆H₆₀O₂. An alternate spelling, retinol palmitate, which violates the -yl organic chemical naming convention for esters, is also frequently seen.
Riboflavin is part of the vitamin B group. It is the central component of the cofactors FAD and FMN and as such required for a variety of flavoprotein enzyme reactions including activation of other vitamins. It was formerly known as vitamin G.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin. Unlike most mammals and other animals, humans do not have the ability to make ascorbic acid and must obtain vitamin C from the diet.
The term vitamin E describes a family of eight fat-soluble molecules with antioxidant activities: four tocopherol isoforms (α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol) and four tocotrienol isoforms (α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocotrienol) (Figure 1). Only one form, α-tocopherol, meets human vitamin E requirements (see The RDA). In the human liver, α-tocopherol is the form of vitamin E that is preferentially bound to α-tocopherol transfer protein (α-TTP) and incorporated into lipoproteins that transport α-tocopherol in the blood for delivery to extrahepatic tissues. Therefore, it is the predominant form of vitamin E found in the blood and tissues (1). In addition, α-tocopherol appears to be the form of vitamin E with the greatest nutritional significance, such that it will be the primary topic of the following discussion.
Vitamin D2 is used to ensure the right concentration of calcium and phosphorus in the blood. Ergocalciferol is used to treat and prevent bone growth disorders such as osteomalacia, rickets and osteoporosis. Recent research shows that vitamin D2 can also be of paramount importance to prevent other abnormalities and diseases as well. Several forms of cancer and auto-immune diseases are targeted by several research companies. The Ergocalciferol PhEur/USP is made under cGMP regime in the European Union. Dishman supplies this API from Veenendaal, the Netherlands.
Vitamin D refers to a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for enhancing intestinal absorption of calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphate, and zinc. In humans, the most important compounds in this group are vitamin D3 (also known as cholecalciferol) and vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol). Cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol can be ingested from the diet and from supplements. Very few foods contain vitamin D; synthesis of vitamin D (specifically cholecalciferol) in the skin is the major natural source of the vitamin. Dermal synthesis of vitamin D from cholesterol is dependent on sun exposure (specifically UVB radiation).
Vitamin E refers to a group of compounds that include both tocopherols and tocotrienols. Of the many different forms of vitamin E, γ-tocopherol is the most common form found in the North American diet. γ-Tocopherol can be found in corn oil, soybean oil, margarine, and dressings. α-tocopherol, the most biologically active form of vitamin E, is the second-most common form of vitamin E in the diet. This variant can be found most abundantly in wheat germ oil, sunflower, and safflower oils. As a fat-soluble antioxidant, it stops the production of reactive oxygen species formed when fat undergoes oxidation. Regular consumption of more than 1,000 mg (1,500 IU) of tocopherols per day may be expected to cause hypervitaminosis E, with an associated risk of vitamin K deficiency and consequently of bleeding problems.
Alpha-tocopherol is the form of vitamin E that is preferentially absorbed and accumulated in humans. The measurement of "vitamin E" activity in international units (IU) was based on fertility enhancement by the prevention of miscarriages in pregnant rats relative to alpha-tocopherol.
Vitamin B6 refers to a group of chemically very similar compounds which can be interconverted in biological systems. Vitamin B6 is part of the vitamin B group, and its active form, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) serves as a coenzyme in many enzyme reactions in amino acid, glucose, and lipid metabolism.
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