Aspartame is an artificial, non-saccharide sweetener used as a sugar substitute in some foods and beverages. In the European Union, it is codified as E951. Aspartame is a methyl ester of the aspartic acid/phenylalanine dipeptide
Acesulfame potassium, also known as acesulfame K or Ace K, is a calorie-free sugar substitute, and marketed under the trade names Sunett and Sweet One. In the European Union, it is known under the E number E950.
Neotame is an artificial sweetener made by NutraSweet that is between 7,000 and 13,000 times sweeter than sucrose (table sugar). In the European Union, it is known by the E number E961. It is moderately heat-stable, extremely potent, rapidly metabolized, completely eliminated, and does not appear to accumulate in the body. The major metabolic pathway is hydrolysis of the methyl ester by esterases that are present throughout the body, which yields de-esterified neotame and methanol. Because only trace amounts of neotame are needed to sweeten foods, the amount of methanol derived from neotame is much lower than that found in common foods.
Mannitol is one of the most abundant energy and carbon storage molecules in nature, produced by a plethora of organisms, including bacteria, yeasts, fungi, algae, lichens, and many plants. Fermentation by microorganisms is an alternative to the traditional industrial synthesis. A fructose to mannitol metabolic pathway, known as the mannitol cycle in fungi, has been discovered in a type of red algae (Caloglossa leprieurii), and it is highly possible that other microorganisms employ similar such pathways
Sucralose is a non-nutritive sweetener. The majority of ingested sucralose is not broken down by the body, so it is noncaloric. In the European Union, it is also known under the E number E955. Sucralose is about 320 to 1,000 times sweeter than sucrose, three times as sweet as aspartame and twice as sweet as saccharin
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